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作者:乙乙卓
来源:家庭垃圾分类有害垃圾
发布时间:2019-11-05

和平精英能玩不

小丑走进医院只为变戏法?治病他们是认真的

    本文为健康界原创,作者凌武娟医院里的儿科总是哭声最多的地方。孩子们对“白大褂”的恐惧似乎像是天生的,一听到要打针,立马哇哇大哭。医生、护士、家长了为孩子“那一针”可谓手忙脚乱。但医院里有这么一群人,不仅能“治哭”,还能逗笑,甚至能将那些因为脑损伤、瘫痪等各种情况无法交流和行动的孩子唤醒。他们就是医疗小丑。图片来自图虫创意医疗小丑“唤醒植物人”在多伦多Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital(儿童康复医院)的病房里,几个小丑在准备变身:瑞奇(Ricky)穿着吊带裤,戴着螺旋桨的帽子;弗拉普博士(Dr. Flap)穿着实验室外套,戴着飞行员的帽子。和其他小丑不一样,他们看起来并不吓人,是特殊的医疗小丑(Therapeutic Clown)。对于医疗小丑来说,“装愚蠢”是一项严肃的工作。弗拉普博士的扮演者海伦·唐纳利(Helen Donnelly)有数年的小丑表演经验,但是在Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital工作与他平时表演的目的不太一样:让孩子们“离开”复杂治疗的现实世界,进入他们可以“控制”的想象世界。海伦·唐纳利是世界上最早的医疗小丑之一。他们第一次注意到医院的孩子还是在2007年左右,当时那些孩子因脑损伤、出生缺陷、中风或癫痫无法行动或说话,有些甚至像“植物人”。海伦·唐纳利和她的小伙伴们扮成小丑,用各种各样的技巧去逗孩子开心,例如即兴创作歌曲、耍弄围巾,吹出巨大又闪闪发光的气泡,假装狼吞虎咽吃东西等等。如果遇到了残疾比较严重的孩子,他们不会立马进行表演,而是给孩子时间,静静地等个15秒、30秒。在看到孩子眨了眼或转了头,他们会去猜测那代表什么意思。因为孩子们无法表达,而且对有些人来说,小丑可能看起来很可怕。所以他们有时候也担心。“我们怎么知道没有伤害到这些孩子?”唐纳利说,“如果他们无法表达,我们又怎么知道自己就是受欢迎的呢?”图片来源:Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospita带着这些疑问,他们去寻找“解铃人”——医生。然而和医生们讨论的结果不尽人意:医生和他们一样被难到了。“我们可以理解与这些孩子互动的难度,”当时还是工程专业博士生的Stefanie Blain-Moraes回忆说。这场临时讨论会却让Blain-Moraes促成了她的发明——将算法与生物传感器配对产生她称之为生物音乐(biomusic)的东西,让家长和医生理解孩子无法与人沟通的情感和情绪。也正是这项发明,证明了医疗小丑的存在对这些孩子起了作用。Blain-Moraes花了多年时间尝试弄懂这些孩子可能会感受到的东西。他们情绪激动时经常伴随生理变化——出汗或脉搏加速,但严重残疾的孩子却不会给出任何信号。于是,她又试着模仿经典心理学,一遍又一遍地重复孩子们的名字,奈何运气也不佳。她还曾让家长带上孩子喜欢或讨厌的玩具或物品,看看能否让孩子们产生足够的情绪反应从而引起身体反应,但同样一无所获。而这些医疗小丑却成了最好的刺激源。当医疗小丑为那些连接着传感器的孩子们表演时,Blain-Moraes看到了那些她一直在寻找的反应。“我们认为他们处于植物人状态,无意识,也无法感知这个世界,但是因为这些小丑,他们的身体有非常明显的回应。”Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital的医疗小丑项目(Therapeutic Clown Program)于2005年设立,已经从单人医疗小丑治疗模式发展成双人医疗小丑治疗模式。每周二、三、四医生医疗小丑团队会定期向医院患儿提供小丑医疗服务。图片来自图虫创意医疗小丑犹如戏剧疗法据Psychology Today报道,小丑治疗或医疗小丑不同于那些只是进入医院为患者加油或逗乐的小丑,医疗小丑更像戏剧疗法(drama therapy),能帮助患者发现他们内心的“小丑”。一旦这个内心“小丑”出现,这些患者就会接受日常生活中的矛盾,找到新的沟通方式。2018年2月,The Arts in Psychotherapy杂志刊发了一篇文章。作者研究了小丑治疗在药物成瘾患者中长达十几年的治疗效果。这项研究项目得到了以色列社会福利部(Israeli Ministry of Social Welfare)的支持。研究对象是药物滥用后出现身体戒断症状、人格障碍以及具有药物成瘾犯罪行为史的患者,多为男性,年龄在20~60岁之间,包括犹太人、阿拉伯人、基督徒和德鲁兹人。在调查了70名研究对象后,以色列社会福利部公布小丑治疗具有以下效果:改善患者与家人特别是子女的关系;加强患者平衡生活和超越冲突的能力;无需药物或酒精,可改善患者情绪的“灵活性”;患者具有更好的应对能力;增强患者的问题解决能力;提升患者的成就感和对个人优势的关注;增强患者自我意识;提高患者的自尊心;患者对别人更能敞开心扉。虽然该研究主要针对的是药物滥用领域的小丑治疗,但作者认为这种医疗小丑干预可能对其他疾病患者也有用。首次在1998年发文称医疗小丑具有治疗潜力的心理健康治疗师Cheryl Carp表示,事实证明,医疗小丑可改善残疾人、危机青少年和其他边缘化群体的生活质量。图片来自图虫创意国内医疗小丑的发展医疗小丑或小丑医生在世界其他国家已有30多年的发展史,在以色列、澳大利亚、美国、加拿大以及欧洲国家已经成为一个非常严肃且专业的职业。以色列是最早将小丑医疗服务职业化的国家之一,一些知名高校甚至开设了医疗小丑专业,各大型医院都驻有职业的小丑医生为有需要的患者提供小丑医疗服务,受过训练的医疗小丑们已经受聘成为医疗团队的成员之一。据公开资料显示,目前我国四川、广东、山东等地有小丑医生团队。例如,广东省妇幼保健院于2013年在国内首创“小丑医生”志愿服务项目;“四川小丑医生团队”成立于2015年,由四川省人民医院、成都医学院第一附属医院共同发起;山东省首支“小丑医生”志愿团队——济宁市第一人民医院“小丑医生”志愿团队于2016年成立,现已被患者和社会大众所熟知。美中不足的是,国内小丑医生团队多为志愿者团队,成员来自各行各业,发展数量非常有限,距离职业化还有很长一段路。现代医疗逐渐向“生物——心理——社会”模式转变,小丑医生的出现就是最好的说明。小丑医生用各种表演、游戏、笑话等手段为患者带去了欢声笑语,也为患者提供精神支持,通过交流帮助患者更好地配合医务人员的工作,使患者在治愈疾病的同时保证良好的精神状态和社会功能,可有效减轻医务人员与患者的沟通负担。当前中国医患关系日趋紧张,医闹、伤医事件不断,或许小丑医生就是医患之间良好的“和事佬”。而其职业化也显得越发重要。参考资料:1. These children can neither move nor speak. Clowns and engineers are trying to listen to their inner worlds(STAT)2. Therapeutic clown program(Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital)The Benefits of Clown Therapy(Psychology Today)

ben wen wei jian kang jie yuan chuang, zuo zhe ling wu juan yi yuan li de er ke zong shi ku sheng zui duo de di fang. hai zi men dui" bai da gua" de kong ju si hu xiang shi tian sheng de, yi ting dao yao da zhen, li ma wa wa da ku. yi sheng hu shi jia zhang le wei hai zi" na yi zhen" ke wei shou mang jiao luan. dan yi yuan li you zhe me yi qun ren, bu jin neng" zhi ku", hai neng dou xiao, shen zhi neng jiang nei xie yin wei nao sun shang tan huan deng ge zhong qing kuang wu fa jiao liu he xing dong de hai zi huan xing. ta men jiu shi yi liao xiao chou. tu pian lai zi tu chong chuang yi yi liao xiao chou" huan xing zhi wu ren" zai duo lun duo Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital er tong kang fu yi yuan de bing fang li, ji ge xiao chou zai zhun bei bian shen: rui qi Ricky chuan zhe diao dai ku, dai zhe luo xuan jiang de mao zi fu la pu bo shi Dr. Flap chuan zhuo shi yan shi wai tao, dai zhe fei xing yuan de mao zi. he qi ta xiao chou bu yi yang, ta men kan qi lai bing bu xia ren, shi te shu de yi liao xiao chou Therapeutic Clown. dui yu yi liao xiao chou lai shuo," zhuang yu chun" shi yi xiang yan su de gong zuo. fu la pu bo shi de ban yan zhe hai lun tang na li Helen Donnelly you shu nian de xiao chou biao yan jing yan, dan shi zai Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital gong zuo yu ta ping shi biao yan de mu di bu tai yi yang: rang hai zi men" li kai" fu za zhi liao de xian shi shi jie, jin ru ta men ke yi" kong zhi" de xiang xiang shi jie. hai lun tang na li shi shi jie shang zui zao de yi liao xiao chou zhi yi. ta men di yi ci zhu yi dao yi yuan de hai zi hai shi zai 2007 nian zuo you, dang shi nei xie hai zi yin nao sun shang chu sheng que xian zhong feng huo dian xian wu fa xing dong huo shuo hua, you xie shen zhi xiang" zhi wu ren". hai lun tang na li he ta de xiao huo ban men ban cheng xiao chou, yong ge zhong ge yang de ji qiao qu dou hai zi kai xin, li ru ji xing chuang zuo ge qu shua nong wei jin, chui chu ju da you shan shan fa guang de qi pao, jia zhuang lang tun hu yan chi dong xi deng deng. ru guo yu dao le can ji bi jiao yan zhong de hai zi, ta men bu hui li ma jin xing biao yan, er shi gei hai zi shi jian, jing jing di deng ge 15 miao 30 miao. zai kan dao hai zi zha le yan huo zhuan le tou, ta men hui qu cai ce na dai biao shen me yi si. yin wei hai zi men wu fa biao da, er qie dui you xie ren lai shuo, xiao chou ke neng kan qi lai hen ke pa. suo yi ta men you shi hou ye dan xin." wo men zen me zhi dao mei you shang hai dao zhei xie hai zi?" tang na li shuo," ru guo ta men wu fa biao da, wo men you zen me zhi dao zi ji jiu shi shou huan ying de ne?" tu pian lai yuan: Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospita dai zhe zhei xie yi wen, ta men qu xun zhao" jie ling ren" yi sheng. ran er he yi sheng men tao lun de jie guo bu jin ren yi: yi sheng he ta men yi yang bei nan dao le." wo men ke yi li jie yu zhei xie hai zi hu dong de nan du," dang shi hai shi gong cheng zhuan ye bo shi sheng de Stefanie BlainMoraes hui yi shuo. zhe chang lin shi tao lun hui que rang BlainMoraes cu cheng le ta de fa ming jiang suan fa yu sheng wu chuan gan qi pei dui chan sheng ta cheng zhi wei sheng wu yin yue biomusic de dong xi, rang jia zhang he yi sheng li jie hai zi wu fa yu ren gou tong de qing gan he qing xu. ye zheng shi zhe xiang fa ming, zheng ming liao yi liao xiao chou de cun zai dui zhei xie hai zi qi le zuo yong. BlainMoraes hua le duo nian shi jian chang shi nong dong zhei xie hai zi ke neng hui gan shou dao de dong xi. ta men qing xu ji dong shi jing chang ban sui sheng li bian hua chu han huo mai bo jia su, dan yan zhong can ji de hai zi que bu hui gei chu ren he xin hao. yu shi, ta you shi zhe mo fang jing dian xin li xue, yi bian you yi bian di chong fu hai zi men de ming zi, nai he yun qi ye bu jia. ta hai ceng rang jia zhang dai shang hai zi xi huan huo tao yan de wan ju huo wu pin, kan kan neng fou rang hai zi men chan sheng zu gou de qing xu fan ying cong er yin qi shen ti fan ying, dan tong yang yi wu suo huo. er zhei xie yi liao xiao chou que cheng le zui hao de ci ji yuan. dang yi liao xiao chou wei nei xie lian jie zhe chuan gan qi de hai zi men biao yan shi, BlainMoraes kan dao le nei xie ta yi zhi zai xun zhao de fan ying." wo men ren wei ta men chu yu zhi wu ren zhuang tai, wu yi shi, ye wu fa gan zhi zhe ge shi jie, dan shi yin wei zhei xie xiao chou, ta men de shen ti you fei chang ming xian de hui ying." Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital de yi liao xiao chou xiang mu Therapeutic Clown Program yu 2005 nian she li, yi jing cong dan ren yi liao xiao chou zhi liao mo shi fa zhan cheng shuang ren yi liao xiao chou zhi liao mo shi. mei zhou er san si yi sheng yi liao xiao chou tuan dui hui ding qi xiang yi yuan huan er ti gong xiao chou yi liao fu wu. tu pian lai zi tu chong chuang yi yi liao xiao chou you ru xi ju liao fa ju Psychology Today bao dao, xiao chou zhi liao huo yi liao xiao chou bu tong yu nei xie zhi shi jin ru yi yuan wei huan zhe jia you huo dou le de xiao chou, yi liao xiao chou geng xiang xi ju liao fa drama therapy, neng bang zhu huan zhe fa xian ta men nei xin de" xiao chou". yi dan zhe ge nei xin" xiao chou" chu xian, zhei xie huan zhe jiu hui jie shou ri chang sheng huo zhong de mao dun, zhao dao xin de gou tong fang shi. 2018 nian 2 yue, The Arts in Psychotherapy za zhi kan fa le yi pian wen zhang. zuo zhe yan jiu le xiao chou zhi liao zai yao wu cheng yin huan zhe zhong chang da shi ji nian de zhi liao xiao guo. zhe xiang yan jiu xiang mu de dao le yi se lie she hui fu li bu Israeli Ministry of Social Welfare de zhi chi. yan jiu dui xiang shi yao wu lan yong hou chu xian shen ti jie duan zheng zhuang ren ge zhang ai yi ji ju you yao wu cheng yin fan zui xing wei shi de huan zhe, duo wei nan xing, nian ling zai 20 60 sui zhi jian, bao kuo you tai ren a la bo ren ji du tu he de lu zi ren. zai diao cha le 70 ming yan jiu dui xiang hou, yi se lie she hui fu li bu gong bu xiao chou zhi liao ju you yi xia xiao guo: gai shan huan zhe yu jia ren te bie shi zi nv de guan xi jia qiang huan zhe ping heng sheng huo he chao yue chong tu de neng li wu xu yao wu huo jiu jing, ke gai shan huan zhe qing xu de" ling huo xing" huan zhe ju you geng hao de ying dui neng li zeng qiang huan zhe de wen ti jie jue neng li ti sheng huan zhe de cheng jiu gan he dui ge ren you shi de guan zhu zeng qiang huan zhe zi wo yi shi ti gao huan zhe de zi zun xin huan zhe dui bie ren geng neng chang kai xin fei. sui ran gai yan jiu zhu yao zhen dui de shi yao wu lan yong ling yu de xiao chou zhi liao, dan zuo zhe ren wei zhe zhong yi liao xiao chou gan yu ke neng dui qi ta ji bing huan zhe ye you yong. shou ci zai 1998 nian fa wen cheng yi liao xiao chou ju you zhi liao qian li de xin li jian kang zhi liao shi Cheryl Carp biao shi, shi shi zheng ming, yi liao xiao chou ke gai shan can ji ren wei ji qing shao nian he qi ta bian yuan hua qun ti de sheng huo zhi liang. tu pian lai zi tu chong chuang yi guo nei yi liao xiao chou de fa zhan yi liao xiao chou huo xiao chou yi sheng zai shi jie qi ta guo jia yi you 30 duo nian de fa zhan shi, zai yi se lie ao da li ya mei guo jia na da yi ji ou zhou guo jia yi jing cheng wei yi ge fei chang yan su qie zhuan ye de zhi ye. yi se lie shi zui zao jiang xiao chou yi liao fu wu zhi ye hua de guo jia zhi yi, yi xie zhi ming gao xiao shen zhi kai she le yi liao xiao chou zhuan ye, ge da xing yi yuan dou zhu you zhi ye de xiao chou yi sheng wei you xu yao de huan zhe ti gong xiao chou yi liao fu wu, shou guo xun lian de yi liao xiao chou men yi jing shou pin cheng wei yi liao tuan dui de cheng yuan zhi yi. ju gong kai zi liao xian shi, mu qian wo guo si chuan guang dong shan dong deng di you xiao chou yi sheng tuan dui. li ru, guang dong sheng fu you bao jian yuan yu 2013 nian zai guo nei shou chuang" xiao chou yi sheng" zhi yuan fu wu xiang mu" si chuan xiao chou yi sheng tuan dui" cheng li yu 2015 nian, you si chuan sheng ren min yi yuan cheng du yi xue yuan di yi fu shu yi yuan gong tong fa qi shan dong sheng shou zhi" xiao chou yi sheng" zhi yuan tuan dui ji ning shi di yi ren min yi yuan" xiao chou yi sheng" zhi yuan tuan dui yu 2016 nian cheng li, xian yi bei huan zhe he she hui da zhong suo shu zhi. mei zhong bu zu de shi, guo nei xiao chou yi sheng tuan dui duo wei zhi yuan zhe tuan dui, cheng yuan lai zi ge hang ge ye, fa zhan shu liang fei chang you xian, ju li zhi ye hua hai you hen zhang yi duan lu. xian dai yi liao zhu jian xiang" sheng wu xin li she hui" mo shi zhuan bian, xiao chou yi sheng de chu xian jiu shi zui hao de shuo ming. xiao chou yi sheng yong ge zhong biao yan you xi xiao hua deng shou duan wei huan zhe dai qu le huan sheng xiao yu, ye wei huan zhe ti gong jing shen zhi chi, tong guo jiao liu bang zhu huan zhe geng hao di pei he yi wu ren yuan de gong zuo, shi huan zhe zai zhi yu ji bing de tong shi bao zheng liang hao de jing shen zhuang tai he she hui gong neng, ke you xiao jian qing yi wu ren yuan yu huan zhe de gou tong fu dan. dang qian zhong guo yi huan guan xi ri qu jin zhang, yi nao shang yi shi jian bu duan, huo xu xiao chou yi sheng jiu shi yi huan zhi jian liang hao de" he shi lao". er qi zhi ye hua ye xian de yue fa zhong yao. can kao zi liao: 1. These children can neither move nor speak. Clowns and engineers are trying to listen to their inner worlds STAT 2. Therapeutic clown program Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital The Benefits of Clown Therapy Psychology Today

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  (水炮车还发射“蓝色水炮”驱散暴力示威者。来源:港媒)

  (随后水炮车离开,现场视频截图。来源:港媒)

  此前(8月25日),反对派在香港荃湾工业园区附近聚集,设置路障阻塞交通。当晚,警方首次出动水炮车清场。

  (25日,警方首次出动水炮车。图源:香港“东网”)

  据悉,水炮车搭载的水炮是一种可以发射高速水柱的设备。通常状况下,水炮可曝李小璐给甜馨改名_前沿新闻网以将大量的水投射到数十米之外。水炮可以用于国航330着火_前沿新闻网消防、清洗大型车辆跟镇暴、海洋(岸)执法单位上驱离非法渔船执法的武器。大部分的水炮被归类成消防设备。

  目前,香港警方共有3辆防暴水炮车,警方称,引进这些防暴水炮车旨在使警队有更多的武力选择,处理社会运动可能出现的激烈场面。

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